Theory of Motivations (2023)

learning goals

After reading this chapter, you will be able to do the following:

  1. Understand the role of motivation in determining employee performance.
  2. Rate the basic needs of employees.
  3. Describe how perceptions of justice are determined and the consequences of these perceptions.
  4. Understand the importance of rewards and penalties.
  5. Apply motivational theories to analyze performance problems.

What inspires employees to provide excellent service, effectively market a company's products, or achieve defined goals? Answering this question is of paramount importance if we want to understand and manage the work behavior of our colleagues, subordinates and even superiors. In other words, if someone is not well, what could be the reason?

Work output is considered as a function of three factors and is expressed by the following equation.Mitchell, TR (1982). Motivation: New paths for theory, research and practice.Management Academy Review,7, 80–88; Porter, L.W. & Lawler, E.E. (1968).Management and performance settings. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.According to this equation, motivation, skills, and environment are the most important influences on employee performance.

Figure 5.1

Theory of Motivations (1)

Achievement is a function of the interaction between an individual's motivation, skills, and environment.

Motivation is one of the forces that lead to achievement.MotivationThe desire to achieve a specific goal or level of achievement, leading to goal-directed behavior.It is defined as the desire to achieve a goal or a specific level of achievement, which leads to goal-directed behavior. When we describe someone as motivated, we mean that the person puts a lot of effort into a specific task. Motivation is clearly important for someone to perform well; However, it is not enough.AbilityHave the necessary skills and knowledge to perform the role.— or having the skills and knowledge to do the job — is also important and sometimes the key to effectiveness. Finally,environmentExternal factors that affect performance.Factors such as the availability of resources, information and support needed to perform well are critical in determining performance. At different times, one of these three factors can be the key to peak performance. For example, for an employee who sweeps the floor, motivation may be the most important factor in determining performance. On the other hand, even the most motivated person would not be able to successfully design a home without the talent needed to build quality homes. Motivation is not the same as high performers and it is not the only reason people perform well, but it still has a significant impact on our level of performance.

So what motivates people? Why are some employees trying to achieve their goals and strive for excellence, while others just come to work and count the hours? As with many human questions, the answer is far from simple. Instead, there are several theories that explain the concept of motivation. We will discuss motivational theories in two categories: need-based theories and process theories.

5.1A Motivating Workplace: The Zappos Case

It's unique to hear from a CEO who studies happiness and motivation and embeds those principles into the company's core values, or a company with a 5-week training course and a $2,000 offer to resign anytime during those 5 weeks. weeks if you think the company is not a good fit. Top it off with a local life coach who is also a chiropractor and is really talking about something you don't hear every day. Zappos is known for its 365-day return policy and free shipping, as well as its innovative company culture. Although Zappos was bought by Amazon (NASDAQ:AMZN) in 2009, Zappos managed to rise from 23rd place in 2009wealthRanked #15 on the magazine's 2010 Top 100 Best Companies to Work For list.

Achievement is a function of motivation, skills and the environment in which you work. Zappos seems to create an environment that encourages motivation and inclusion. The company goes beyond basic workplace requirements to meet the self-actualization needs most people want in their work experience. CEO Tony Hsieh believes the key to customer retention is prioritizing a culture of care. This is reflected in the company's 10 core values ​​and its emphasis on building a team and a family. During the interview, candidates are asked questions about the company's values, such as: B. Assessing one's own insanity, open-mindedness, and sense of family. Although the offer to quit smoking for half of the interns has increased from the original $400, only 1% of interns accept the offer. Work at Zappos is also structured differently. For example, there is no limit on how long customer service representatives spend on a phone call, and they are encouraged to make personal connections with people on the other end of the line rather than trying to get rid of them.

Although Zappos employs more than 1,300 people, the company maintains a relatively flat organizational structure and prides itself on its extreme transparency. In an exceptionally long and detailed letter to employees, Hsieh laid out what the new partnership with Amazon would mean for the company, what would change and, most importantly, what would stay the same. This type of corporate structure gives people more freedom, which can lead to greater satisfaction.

While Zappos pays its employees well and offers attractive benefits such as comprehensive health care and a reduced workweek, the desire to work at Zappos seems to go further. As Hsieh would say, happiness is the driving force behind almost every action an individual undertakes. Whether your goals are achievement, belonging, or simply finding a comfortable environment to work in, Zappos strives to meet those needs.

case written by[Quote edited at editor's request]🇧🇷 Based on information from Robischon, N. (July 22, 2009). Amazon buys Zappos for $847 company🇧🇷 Retrieved February 28, 2010 from🇧🇷 Walker, A. (March 14, 2009). Tony Hsieh of Zappos on Twitter, phone calls and the pursuit of company🇧🇷 Retrieved February 27, 2010 from🇧🇷 Happy feet: in the utopia of online footwear. (2009, September 14).New Yorker🇧🇷 Retrieved February 28, 2010 from🇧🇷 The 100 best companies to work for. (2010, February 8).wealth🇧🇷 Retrieved February 26, 2010 from

discussion questions

  1. What possible organizational changes could result from the Amazon acquisition?
  2. Why do you think Zappos' approach isn't used more often? In other words, what are the challenges of these techniques?
  3. Why do you think Zappos offers a $2,000 incentive to quit smoking?
  4. Would you be motivated to work at Zappos? Why or why not?

5.2Need-Based Motivation Theories

learning goals

  1. Explain how employees are motivated according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
  2. Explain how the ERG (existence, connectivity, growth) theory addresses the limits of Maslow's hierarchy.
  3. Describe the differences between the factors that contribute to employee motivation and how they differ from the factors that contribute to dissatisfaction.
  4. Describe the need for achievement, power, and belonging, and identify how these acquired needs affect behavior at work.

Early studies of motivation involved an examination of individual needs. In particular, early researchers thought that employees would strive and exhibit goal-directed behavior to satisfy needs. For example, an employee who is constantly walking around the office talking to people may have a need for companionship, and their behavior may be a way to satisfy that need. At that time, researchers developed theories to understand what people need. Four theories fall into this category: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, ERG Theory, Herzberg's Two Factor Theory, and McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow is one of the most prominent psychologists of the 20th century. Your hierarchy of needs is a familiar image to most students and business managers. The theory is based on a simple premise: people have hierarchical needs.Maslow, AH (1943). A theory of human motivation.psychological review,50, 370–396; Maslow, AH (1954).motivation and personality. . . . Nova York: Harper.There are some needs that are fundamental for all human beings and in their absence nothing else matters. When we satisfy these basic needs, we begin to seek to satisfy higher-order needs. In other words, once a lower-level need is satisfied, it no longer serves as a motivator.

Figure 5.3Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Theory of Motivations (2)

Maslow's most basic needs arepsychological needsThe need for air, food and water.🇧🇷 Physiological needs refer to the need for food, water and other biological needs. These needs are fundamental because, when absent, the search for them can overwhelm all other impulses. Imagine that you are very hungry. At that point, all of its behavior can be directed toward finding food. However, once you eat, the quest for food stops and the promise of food no longer serves as a motivator. Once physiological needs are satisfied, people tend to worrysecurity needsThe need to be free from danger and pain.🇧🇷 Are they free from danger, pain or an uncertain future? at the next level,social needsThe need to connect with others, to be loved and to form lasting bonds with them.they relate to the need to connect with others, to be liked, and to form lasting bonds with others. In fact, attachments, or the lack of them, are associated with our health and well-being.Baumeister, RF & Leary, MR (1995). The need to belong: The desire for interpersonal connections as a basic human motivation.Psychological Bulletin,117, 497-529.The satisfaction of social needsneed recognitionThe desire to be respected, important and valued by colleagues.more prominent. The need for esteem refers to the desire to be respected, important and valued by peers. Finally, at the highest level of the hierarchy, the need toself-realizationThe need to become all that you are capable of.refers to "becoming all that you can become". This need manifests itself through the desire to acquire new skills, accept new challenges and behave in order to achieve life goals.

Maslow was a clinical psychologist and his theory was not originally designed for work environments. In fact, his theory was based on his observations of people in clinical settings; some of the theory's individual components have found little empirical support. One point of criticism concerns the priority order of needs. One might imagine that people who are starving and fearing for their lives maintain strong ties with others, indicating a different need. Furthermore, the researchers were unable to support the arguments that a need, once satisfied, no longer serves as a motivator and that only one need is dominant at any given time.Neher, A. (1991). Maslow's theory of motivation: a critique.Journal of Humanistic Psychology,31, 89-112; Rauschenberger, J., Schmitt, N. & Hunter, JE. (1980). A proof-of-concept hierarchy of needs using a Markov model of change in the strength of need.Management Science Quarterly,25, 654–670.

Despite the lack of strong research support, Maslow's theory has found obvious applications in business settings. Understanding what people need gives us clues about how to understand them. Hierarchy is a systematic way of thinking about the different needs employees might have at a given time and explains the different responses they might have to similar treatment. An employee who is trying to satisfy appreciation needs may feel gratified when his manager praises an achievement. Yet another employee trying to meet social needs might refuse to be praised by senior management in front of his peers if the praise sets him apart from the rest of the group.

How can an organization meet the diverse needs of its employees? In the long term, physiological needs can be met by a person's salary, but it is important to remember that salary can also satisfy other needs, such as security and esteem. The provision of generous benefits, including company-sponsored health insurance and retirement plans, and a degree of job security help meet security needs. Social needs can be met by providing a pleasant environment and a workplace conducive to collaborating and communicating with others. Company picnics and other social gatherings can also be useful when most employees are driven primarily by social needs (but can breed resentment when this is not the case and they have to sacrifice a Sunday afternoon for a company picnic). Providing opportunities for promotion in the workplace, recognizing an individual's achievement verbally or through more formal reward systems, and assigning titles that indicate that the employee has achieved high status within the organization are some of the ways to satisfy the need for recognition. . Finally, the need for self-actualization can be met by offering opportunities for development and growth inside or outside work and through interesting and challenging work. By striving to meet the diverse needs of each employee, companies can ensure a highly motivated workforce.

teoria ERG

Figure 5.4

Theory of Motivations (3)

ERG theory encompasses existence, connection, and growth.

(Video) Motivation Theories Explained in 10 Minutes

Source: Based on Alderfer, C.P. (1969). An empirical test of a new theory of human needs.Organizational behavior and human performance,4, 142–175.

The ERG theory developed by Clayton Alderfer is a modification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.Alderfer, CP. (1969). An empirical test of a new theory of human needs.Organizational behavior and human performance,4, 142–175.Instead of five hierarchically organized needs, Alderfer proposed that basic human needs can be grouped into three categories, namely existence, connectedness, and growth.existenceA need that satisfies Maslow's physiological and safety needs.meets Maslow's physiological and safety needs,relationshipA need that corresponds to Maslow's social needs.meets the needs of society andincreaseA need related to Maslow's appreciation and self-actualization.refers to Maslow's appreciation and self-realization.

The main contribution of ERG theory to the literature is the relaxation of Maslow's assumptions. For example, ERG theory does not rank needs in any particular order and explicitly recognizes that more than one need may be in play at any given time. In addition, the theory has a "frustration regression" hypothesis, which suggests that people who become frustrated in their attempts to satisfy one need may return to another. For example, someone who is frustrated with opportunities for growth at work and progress toward career goals might turn to a need to network and start spending more time with co-workers. The implication of this theory is that we need to recognize the multiple needs that, at any given moment, may drive people to understand their behavior and motivate them accordingly.

two factor theory

Frederick Herzberg approached the issue of motivation in a different way. When asking people what makes them happy and unhappy in the workplace, Herzberg concluded that the aspects of the work environment that make employees happy are very different from the aspects that make them unhappy.Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. e Snyderman, B. (1959).work motivation🇧🇷 New York: John Wiley; Herzberg, F. (1965). The motivation to work with Finnish supervisors.personal psychology,18, 393–402.Herzberg referred to the factors that caused worker dissatisfaction as "hygiene" factors, because these factors were part of the context in which the work was performed, as opposed to the work itself.The hygiene factorCompany policies, supervision, working conditions, salary, safety and security in the workplace.These included company policies, supervision, working conditions, compensation, and workplace safety and security. To illustrate, imagine you are working in an uncomfortable work environment. Your office is too hot in the summer and too cold in the winter. They are harassed and abused. You would certainly feel unhappy in such a work environment. However, if these problems were resolved (your office temperature is correct and they don't bother you), would you be motivated? Most likely, you take the situation for granted. In fact, many factors in our work environment are things we miss when they are absent but take for granted when they are present.

The difference of,motivatorsInherent job factors such as B. Achievement, recognition, interesting work, increased responsibility, opportunities for promotion and growth.they are factors inherent to the position, such as B. Achievement, recognition, interesting work, increased responsibility, opportunities for ascension and growth. According to Herzberg's research, motivators are the conditions that actually encourage employees to try harder.

Figure 5.5

Theory of Motivations (4)

The two-factor theory of motivation includes hygiene and motivating factors.

Sources: Based on Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., and Snyderman, B. (1959).work motivation🇧🇷 New York: John Wiley and Sons; Herzberg, F. (1965). The motivation to work with Finnish supervisors.personal psychology,18, 393–402.

Herzberg's research is far from universally accepted.Cummings, LL and Elsalmi, AM (1968). Empirical research on the foundations and correlates of leadership motivation.Psychological Bulletin,70, 127–144; House, RJ and Wigdor, LA (1967). Herzberg's two-factor theory of job satisfaction and motivation: a review and critique of the evidence.personal psychology,20, 369–389.One criticism concerns the primary research methodology used to arrive at hygiene versus motivators. When people are asked why they are happy, they may attribute the causes of happiness to themselves, whereas when they explain what makes them unhappy, they may blame the situation. Classifying hygiene or motivating factors is not so easy. For example, the theory views salary as a hygiene factor. However, the pay can have a symbolic value, showing employees that they are recognized for their contributions and letting them know they are moving up in the company. Likewise, the quality of mentoring or the type of relationship that employees establish with their managers can determine whether they are assigned interesting work, whether their potential is recognized and whether they assume more responsibilities.

Despite its limitations, the theory can be of great help to managers, as it suggests that improving the environment in which work is done makes only a limited contribution to motivating employees. Undoubtedly, contextual factors play a role because their absence leads to dissatisfaction. However, focusing on hygiene factors alone will not be enough, and managers must also enrich workplaces by providing employees with opportunities for challenging tasks, increased responsibility, opportunities for advancement, and a job that their subordinates can feel good about. succeeded.

Theory of Acquired Needs

Among needs-based motivational approaches, David McClelland's theory of acquired needs has received the most support. According to this theory, individuals acquire three types of needs as a result of life experience. These needs are the need for achievement, the need to belong, and the need for power. All individuals have some combination of these needs, and it is assumed that dominant needs determine employee behavior.

McClelland used a unique method calledThematic Apperception Test (TAT)A test that assesses a person's core needs.assess the prevailing need.Spangler, W.D. (1992). Questionnaire validity and measures of TAT performance needs: two meta-analyses.Psychological Bulletin,112, 140–154.In this method, subjects are presented with an ambiguous image and asked to write a story based on it. Note the next image. Who is this person? What are you doing? Why is he doing this? The story you tell about the woman in the image will be reviewed by trained experts. The idea is that the stories evoked by the photo reflect how the mind works and what motivates the person.

If the story you created includes themes of success, meeting deadlines, or brilliant ideas, you may have high performance requirements. those who are tallperformance needHave a strong need to succeed.they have a strong need to succeed. As children, they can be commended for the hard work that forms the basis of their perseverance.Mueller, CM and Dweck, CS (1998). Praising intelligence can undermine children's motivation and achievement.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,75, 33–52.As adults, they are busy doing things better than in the past. These people constantly strive to improve their performance. You are incessantly focused on goals, especially stretch goals that are inherently challenging.Campbell, DJ (1982). Determinants of goal difficulty choice: a review of situational and personal influences.Journal of Industrial Psychology,55, 79–95.They are particularly suited to roles such as sales, where objectives are clear, feedback is available, and their use often leads to success. In fact, they are more attracted to organizations that are based on merit and reward performance rather than seniority. They also do particularly well as entrepreneurs, scientists and engineers.Harrell, AM and Stahl, MJ (1981). A behavioral decision theory approach to measuring McClelland's trichotomy of needs.Journal of Applied Psychology,66, 242–247; Trevis, CS and Certo, SC (2005). Outstanding horizons,48, 271-274; Turban, DB and Keon, TL (1993). Organizational attractiveness: an interactionist perspective.Journal of Applied Psychology,78, 184–193.

Are high-performing managers effective? Due to their success in lower positions, where their individual contributions are most important, those with high performance needs are often promoted to higher levels.McClelland, DC and Boyatzis, RE (1982). Patterns of leadership motivation and long-term success in management.Journal of Applied Psychology,67, 737–743.However, a high demand for performance has considerable disadvantages in managerial positions. Managing means doing work by motivating others. When a salesperson is promoted to sales manager, the job description changes from actively selling to recruiting, motivating, and training salespeople. Those with high performance needs may see management activities such as training, communication and meetings with subordinates as a waste of time and neglect these aspects of their work. Additionally, those with high performance requirements like to do things alone and may have difficulty delegating significant authority to subordinates. These people often micromanage and expect others to approach tasks in a certain way, and they can become overbearing bosses, expecting everyone to demonstrate a high level of dedication.McClelland, DC and Burnham, D.H. (1976). Power is the great motivator.Harvard Business Review,25, 159–166.

If the story you've created in relation to the image you're analyzing contains elements where you plan to be with friends or family, you may have a strong need to belong. guys who are tallneed to belongThe desire to be loved and accepted by others.wanting to be loved and accepted by others. Given the choice, they prefer to interact with other people and hang out with friends.Wong, MM and Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1991). Motivation to join and daily experience: Some questions about gender differences.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,60, 154–164.Your emphasis on harmonious interpersonal relationships can be found in jobs and occupations that require frequent interpersonal interactions, such as B. as a social worker or teacher, to be to an advantage. In leadership positions, on the other hand, a strong need to belong can be a disadvantage, as these individuals are overly concerned with how others perceive them. You may find it difficult to fulfill some aspects of a manager's job, such as B. Giving critical feedback to employees or disciplining underperformers. The work environment can be characterized by mediocrity and even lead to the best workers leaving the team.

Finally, if your story includes elements of doing your job influencing others or wanting to make an impact on the organization, you may have a strong need for power. Those who have a highneed for powerThe desire to influence others and control your environment.they want to influence others and control their environment. The lust for power can actually be a destructive element in peer relationships when it takes the form of seeking and using power for one's own good and prestige. However, when it manifests itself in more altruistic ways, such as changing the way you work to make the work environment more positive or negotiating more resources for your department, it tends to produce positive results. Indeed, the need for power is seen as an important trait for effectiveness in managerial and leadership roles.McClelland, DC and Burnham, D.H. (1976). Power is the great motivator.Harvard Business Review,25, 159–166; Spangler, W.D. & House, R.J. (1991). Presidential Effectiveness and the Motivating Leadership Profile.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,60, 439–455; Spreier, SO (2006). Leadership goes crazy.Harvard Business Review,84, 72-82.

McClelland's theory of acquired needs has important implications for employee motivation. Managers must understand their employees' prevailing needs in order to motivate them. While people with a high need for achievement may respond to goals, those with a high need for power may seek to gain influence over those they work with, and people with a high need for belonging may be motivated to seek approval. to their peers and superiors. Finally, those with a strong drive for success may struggle in leadership positions, and warning them about common pitfalls can increase their effectiveness.

key to charge

Need-oriented theories describe motivated behavior as individuals' efforts to satisfy their needs. From this perspective, the leader's role is to identify people's needs and make the work environment a means to meet them. Maslow's hierarchy describes five categories of basic human needs, including physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. These needs are organized hierarchically, and when a lower-level need is satisfied, it no longer serves as a motivator. ERG theory is a modification of Maslow's hierarchy, which groups the five needs into three categories (existence, connectedness, and growth). The theory recognizes that when employees get frustrated trying to satisfy higher needs, they may fall behind. The two-factor theory distinguishes between the factors that make people dissatisfied at work (hygiene factors) and the factors that really motivate employees (motivators). Finally, acquired needs theory holds that individuals possess stable, dominant motives for achieving, gaining power, or associating with others. The nature of the predominant need determines the behavior. Each of these theories explains the characteristics of a work environment that motivate employees. These theories paved the way for process-based theories that explain the mental calculations employees make to decide how to behave.


  1. Many managers assume that an employee's lack of willingness to perform must be the cause. Do you think this reasoning is correct? What's the problem with the assumption?
  2. See Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Do you agree with the specific hierarchy of employee needs?
  3. How can an organization satisfy the employee needs contained in Maslow's hierarchy?
  4. Which motivational theory do you think worked best to explain why people behave in a certain way? Because?
  5. Review hygiene and motivators in the Two Factor Theory of Motivation. Do you agree with the distinction between hygiene and motivating factors? Are there hygiene factors that you would see as motivators?
  6. A friend of yours demonstrates the characteristics of achievement motivation: this person is competitive, needs frequent and immediate feedback, and enjoys getting things done and doing them better than before. She has recently been promoted to a management position and asks for your advice. What would you say

5.3Process-based theories

learning goals

  1. Explain how employees assess the fairness of reward distributions.
  2. Describe the three types of equity that affect employee attitudes and behavior.
  3. List the three issues people consider when deciding to make an effort at work.
  4. Describe how managers can use learning and reinforcement principles to motivate employees.

A separate line of research considers motivation to be something more than action aimed at satisfying a need. Instead, process-based theories see motivation as a rational process. Individuals analyze their environment, develop thoughts and feelings, and react in certain ways. Process theories attempt to explain the thought processes of individuals who exhibit motivated behavior. In this category, we will review fairness theory, expectancy theory, and reinforcement theory.

theory of justice

Imagine that you are paid $10 an hour working as an office assistant. He held this position for 6 months. You are very good at what you do, find creative ways to make things easier around you, and are a good colleague willing to help others. They stay longer if needed and are flexible if you want to change opening hours. Now imagine that you find out that they are going to hire another employee to work with you who will have the same title and perform the same tasks. This particular individual has more advanced computer skills, but it's unclear if he will use them at work. This person's starting salary is $14 an hour. How would you feel? Would you be as motivated as before and go above and beyond your tasks? How would you describe what you would feel?

Figure 5.7

Theory of Motivations (5)

Fairness is determined by comparing the input-output ratio itself with the input-output ratio of a reference. When the two proportions are equal, there is equity.

Source: Based on Adams, J.S. (1965). injustice in social intercourse. In L. Berkowitz (ed.),Advances in Experimental Social Psychology: Vol. two(pp. 267-299). New York: Academic Press.

If you respond to this scenario by saying, "That would be unfair," then fairness theory can explain your behavior.Adams, JS (1965). injustice in social intercourse. In L. Berkowitz (ed.),Advances is experimental social psychology(Vol. 2, pp. 267-299). Nova York: Academic Press.According to this theory, individuals are motivated by a sense of fairness in their interactions. Our sense of fairness also results from the social comparisons we make. In particular, we compare our inputs and results with other people's inputs and results. We feel right when we believe that the input-output relationship we bring to the situation is similar to the input-output relationship of a comparator, or areferentA person with whom we compare ourselves in equity theory.🇧🇷 Perceptions of injustice create tension in us and cause us to take action to reduce the perceived injustice.

What are inputs and outputs?

Inputs are the contributions that people believe they make to the environment. In the example above, the person's hard work; loyalty to the organization; time dedicated to the organization; and the level of education, training and qualifications may have been relevant inputs. Outcomes are the perceived rewards one can derive from the situation. For the hourly employee in our example, the hourly wage of $10 was an important outcome. There may also be other, more peripheral outcomes, such as B. Recognition or preferential treatment by a manager. However, in the example above, the person can reason as follows: I've been working here for 6 months. I am loyal and perform well (innings). I get paid $10 an hour for this (results). The new person has no experience here (anchor tickets) but is paid $14 an hour. This situation is unfair.

(Video) The Power of Motivation: Crash Course Psychology #17

We must emphasize that perceptions of justice develop as a result of a subjective process. Different people can look at the same situation and perceive different levels of fairness. For example, someone else might look at the same scenario and decide that the situation is fair because the newbie is computer literate and the company pays more for that information.

Who is the speaker?

The referred other can be a specific person or a category of people. Speakers should be comparable to us; otherwise the comparison is meaningless. Given the differences in the nature of inputs and outputs, it would not make sense to compare a student worker with the CEO of the company. Instead, people can compare themselves to someone who fills similar roles in the same organization or, in the case of a CEO, in another organization.

reactions to injustice

The theory describes several possible responses to perceived injustice. Often the situation can be perceptively addressed throughChanging our perception of our own inputs and outputs or those of the speaker🇧🇷 For example, we might justify the situation by downplaying our own contributions (I don't really work that hard at this job), valuing our results more (I have valuable work experience so the situation isn't that bad), skewing the contributions. someone else's (the new hire is actually more competent than I am and deserves to be paid more) or skewing someone else's results (she makes $14 an hour but has to work with a terrible manager to make things less so). unfair). Another serious possibilitymake referrer boost entries🇧🇷 If the other person brings more to the situation, it would be fair to get more out of the situation. If that person can work harder or work on more complicated tasks, justice will be achieved. The person who experiences a perceived injustice can do the same.reduce inputs or try to improve outputs🇧🇷 If the person with the lowest salary tried less, perceived inequality would be reduced. Research shows that people who perceive injustice diminish their job performance or the quality of their contributions.Carrell, MR and Dittrich, JE (1978). Equity theory: recent literature, methodological considerations and new directions.Management Academy Review,3, 202-210; Goodman, P.S. & Friedman, A. (1971). An examination of Adams's theory of injustice.Management Science Quarterly,sixteen, 271–288.Increasing someone's results can be achieved through legitimate means such as negotiating a raise. At the same time, research shows that those who feel unfair sometimes resort to stealing to balance the scales.Greenberg, J. (1993). Stealing in the Name of Justice: Informational and Interpersonal Facilitators of Stealing Responses to the Injustice of Underpayment.Organizational behavior and human decision-making processes.,54, 81–103.Other options includecomparator change(for example, other people doing similar jobs in different organizations are only paid the minimum wage) andleave the situationwhen leavingSchmidt, D.R. & Marwell, G. (1972). Withdrawal and redistribution of rewards in response to injustice.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,8, 207–211.Sometimes it may be necessary to consider legal action as a possible result of a perceived injustice. For example, if an employee discovers that the main reason for a pay gap is sex, the person may respond by taking legal action, as gender pay discrimination is illegal in the United States.

Table 5.1Possible reactions to injustice

reactions to injustice example
distorted perceptions Changing thinking to believe that the presenter is actually more qualified than previously thought
Increase presenter inputs Encourage the presenter to work harder
reduce personal contribution Consciously try less at work. Decreased quality of your own work.
Increase your own results Negotiating a raise for yourself or using unethical methods to increase rewards, such as B. Stealing from the company
change presenter compare yourself to someone worse
leave the situation leave work
seek legal action Sue the company or file a complaint if the unfair conduct in question is legally protected

Source: Based on research reported in Carrell, M.R., & Dittrich, J.E. (1978). Equity theory: recent literature, methodological considerations and new directions.Management Academy Review,3, 202-210; Goodman, P.S. & Friedman, A. (1971). An examination of Adams's theory of injustice.Management Science Quarterly,sixteen, 271-288; Greenberg, J. (1993). Stealing in the Name of Justice: Informational and Interpersonal Facilitators of Stealing Responses to the Injustice of Underpayment.Organizational behavior and human decision-making processes.,54, 81-103; Schmidt, D.R. & Marwell, G. (1972). Withdrawal and redistribution of rewards in response to injustice.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,8, 207–211.

overpayment inequality

What would you do if you felt you were being over-rewarded? In other words, how would you feel if you were the new hire in our internship scenario? Originally, fairness theory proposed that overrewarded individuals would experience feelings of guilt and increase their efforts to restore perceptions of fairness. However, research does not support this argument. Rather, it appears that people experience less suffering because they are being over-rewarded.Austin, W. and Walster, E. (1974). Reactions to confirmations and rejections of fairness and unfairness expectations.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,30, 208–216.It is not difficult to imagine people finding insightful ways of dealing with such a situation, such as B. believing that he has more skills and contributes more to the situation than the caregiver. Therefore, the research does not support the fairness theory's predictions regarding people who are overpaid.Evan, WM and Simmons, RG (1969). Organizational implications of unfair rewards: two experiments on state inconsistency.IEEE Engineering Management Review,1, 95–108.

Individual differences in responses to injustice

Until now, we have assumed that people are motivated to react as soon as they feel a situation is unfair. But does inequality bother everyone equally? Researchers have identified a personality trait that explains different responses to injustice and have named this trait asstock market sensitivityA personality trait that explains different responses to injustice..Huseman RC, Hatfield JD. and Miles, E.W. (1987). A new perspective on stock market theory: building stock market sensitivity.Management Academy Review,12, 222–234.Equality-sensitive people expect to maintain fair relationships and experience stress when they feel they are being over- or under-rewarded. At the same time, there are some people who arebenefactorPeople who give without expecting much in return., those who give without expecting much in return, andCorrectPeople who expect to receive a lot without giving much in return.who expect substantial rewards for relatively little effort. Therefore, the theory is most useful for explaining the behavior of equality-sensitive individuals, and organizations should pay special attention to how these individuals view their relationships.

Fairness beyond justice: procedural and interactional justice

Fairness theory sees perceived fairness as a motivator. However, the way fairness theory defines fairness is limited to reward fairness. Beginning in the 1970s, research on workplace equity began to take a broader view of equity. The theory of justice is concerned with the justice of the outcome and is therefore considered a theory of distributive justice.distributive justiceThe degree to which the results obtained by the organization are fair.refers to the degree to which the results obtained by the organization are perceived as fair. Two other types of justice were identified: procedural justice and interactive justice.

Figure 5.8Dimensions of organizational justice

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Let's say you've just found out that you're getting a promotion. This is clearly an exciting result and comes with increased pay, responsibility and prestige. If you think you deserve a promotion, you will notice high distributive equity (your promotion is fair). However, he later found out that senior management had picked his name out of a hat. How would you feel? You may still like the outcome, but feel that the decision-making process was unfair. If yes, describe a sense of procedural justice.procedural justiceThe extent to which fair decision-making processes are used to arrive at a decision.refers to the degree to which fair decision-making processes are used to arrive at a decision. People are not just concerned with the fairness of the reward. They also expect fair decision-making processes. In fact, research shows that employees care about procedural fairness in many corporate decisions, including firing, employee selection, employee monitoring, performance reviews and salary decisions.Seaweed, B.J. (2001). Effects of computer surveillance on perceptions of privacy and procedural justice.Journal of Applied Psychology,86, 797-804; Bauer, TN, Maertz, CP, Jr., Dolen, MR and Campion, MA. (1998). Longitudinal assessment of candidate responses to recruitment tests and feedback on test results.Journal of Applied Psychology,83, 892-903; Kidwell, R.E. (1995). Tearless pink panties.Management Academy Manager,9, 69–70.People also tend to be more concerned about procedural fairness in situations where they don't get the outcome they think they deserve.Brockner, J. & Wiesenfeld, BM (1996). An integrative framework for explaining responses to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures.Psychological Bulletin,120, 189–208.How would you feel if you weren't promoted and found out that management picked the candidate by pulling names out of hats? This can be considered an added insult to injury. When employees don't get the compensation they want, they tend to blame management for unfair procedures.Brockner, J., Fishman, A.Y., Reb, J., Goldman, B., Spiegel, S., & Garden, C. (2007). Procedural fairness, favorable outcomes, and assessments of an agency's accountability.Journal of Applied Psychology,92, 1657–1671.

Why do officials care about procedural fairness? There are three possible reasons.Cropanzano, R., Bowen, DE & Gilliland, SW (2007). The management of organizational justice.Academy of Management Perspectives,21, 34–48; Tyler, TR (1994). Psychological models of the justice motive: precursors of distributive and procedural justice.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,67, 850–863; Tyler, T., Degoey, P. & Smith, H. (1996). Understanding why the fairness of group procedures matters: A test of the psychological dynamics of the group value model.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,70, 913–930.First, people tend to believe that justice is an end in itself and that it is the right thing to do. Second, fair processes guarantee future rewards. If your name was chosen at random, you have no control over the process and there is no guarantee that you will receive future promotions. When procedures are fair, you are more likely to believe that things will work out in the future. Third, equity conveys that the organization values ​​its employees and cares about their well-being.

The research identified many ways to achieve procedural justice. For example, give employeesprevious newsbefore it is deemed fair to fire, fire, or discipline them.Kidwell, R.E. (1995). Tearless pink panties.Management Academy Manager,9, 69–70.Advance notice helps employees prepare for future changes or gives them a chance to change their behavior before it's too late.Allow employees to have a say in decision-makingit is also importantSeaweed, B.J. (2001). Effects of computer surveillance on perceptions of privacy and procedural justice.Journal of Applied Psychology,86, 797-804; Kernan, MC & Hanges, PJ (2002). Survivors' responses to reorganization: antecedents and consequences of procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice.Journal of Applied Psychology,87, 916-928; Lind, EA, Kanfer, R. & Earley, CP (1990). Voice, control and procedural justice: instrumental and non-instrumental concerns in justice trials.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,59, 952–959.When designing a performance appraisal system or implementing a reorganization, it can be a good idea to ask employees for feedback, as this increases the perception of fairness. Even if it is not possible to involve employeesexplanationsin relation to officials is useful for promoting procedural fairness.Schaubroeck, J., May, D.R. & William, B.F. (1994). Procedural justice claims and workers' responses to economic hardship: a field experiment.Journal of Applied Psychology,79, 455–460.After all, people expectconsistencyin treatment.Bauer, TN, Maertz, CP, Jr., Dolen, MR and Campion, MA. (1998). Longitudinal assessment of candidate responses to recruitment tests and feedback on test results.Journal of Applied Psychology,83, 892–903.If a person was given extra time to complete one test but not another, people would consider the decision making unfair.

Now let's imagine the moment when your boss tells you that you are going to get a promotion. His manager's exact words were, "Yes, we're promoting you. The task is so simple, we thought even you could do it." What is your reaction now? The sense of injustice you may be feeling right now is explained by .interactional justice.justice interactionThe degree to which people are treated with respect, kindness, and dignity in interpersonal interactions.It refers to the degree to which people are treated with respect, kindness and dignity in interpersonal interactions. We expect to be treated with dignity by our colleagues, supervisors and customers. When the opposite happens, we feel angry. Even when we face negative consequences, such as a pay cut, being treated with dignity and respect serves as a buffer and reduces our stress.Greenberg, J (2006). Insomnia Due to Organizational Injustice: Mitigating Insomnia Responses to Inequality Paying Through Supervisory Training in Interactional Justice.Journal of Applied Psychology,91, 58–69.

OB Toolbox: Be a Righteous Man!

  • When distributing bonuses, pay attention to different employee contribution amounts🇧🇷 Treating everyone equally can be unfair when they participate and contribute at different levels. Those more qualified, more experienced, or those who have done more than others expect a greater share of the rewards.
  • Sometimes you may need to ignore people's posts to dish out specific rewards.🇧🇷 Some rewards or privileges may be more evenly distributed (eg, health insurance) or tailored to the needs of each employee (eg, unpaid sick leave).
  • Be careful how you make decisions🇧🇷 Before making a decision, ask people for their opinion, if possible. Explain your decisions to those affected. Before making a change, let people know in advance. Consistently enforce rules across employees.
  • Be careful how you talk to people.🇧🇷 Treat others as you would like to be treated. Be kind, courteous, and pay attention to their feelings.
  • Remember that justice is in the eye of the beholder.🇧🇷 Even if you feel you are being fair, others may not feel the same, and it's notareperception that matters. So make sure you are perceived as fair.
  • People are not only concerned with their own level of fairness.🇧🇷 They also pay attention to how others are treated. Therefore, in addition to attending to certain employee feelings, it is important to create a sense of fairness throughout the organization.

Sources: Adapted from ideas in Colquitt, J.A. (2004). Does the justice of one interact with the justice of many? Responses to procedural justice in teams.Journal of Applied Psychology,89, 633–646; Cropanzano, R., Bowen, DE & Gilliland, SW (2007). The management of organizational justice.Academy of Management Perspectives,21, 34–48.

Employers would benefit from paying attention to all three types of fairness perceptions. In addition to being the right thing to do, paying attention to perceptions of fairness produces results that companies are concerned about. Injustice directly harms employees' mental health and well-being and contributes to stress.Greenberg, J (2004). Dealing with stress at work by promoting organizational justice.dynamic organizations,33, 352–365; Tepper, BJ (2001). Health consequences of organizational injustice: main effects and interaction tests.Organizational behavior and human decision-making processes.,86, 197–215.High levels of equity create higher levels of employee commitment to organizations and are associated with greater job performance and higher levels of organizational citizenship (behaviors that are not part of one's job description but help other organizations' ways, the company, and helping others) and greater customer satisfaction. Conversely, a low level of fairness leads to retaliation and support for unionization.Blader, SL (2007). What drives organization members to collectivize? Injustice and identification as precursors to union certification.organizational science,18, 108–126; Cohen-Charash, Y. & Spector, P.E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: a meta-analysis.Organizational behavior and human decision-making processes.,86, 278-321; Colquitt, JA, Conlon, DE, Wesson, MJ, Porter, COLH, & Ng, KY (2001). Justice in the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research.Journal of Applied Psychology,86, 425–445; Cropanzano, R., Bowen, DE & Gilliland, SW (2007). The management of organizational justice.Academy of Management Perspectives,21, 34–48; Masterson, SS (2001). A trickle-down model of organizational equity: linking employee and customer perceptions and responses to equity.Journal of Applied Psychology,86, 594-604; Masterson SS, Lewis K, Goldman BM. & Taylor, S.M. (2000). Integrating justice and social exchange: The differential impact of fair trial and treatment on labor relations.Management Academy Magazine,43, 738-748; Moorman, RH (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior: does the perception of justice affect employees' citizenship?Journal of Applied Psychology,76, 845–855; Skarlicki, D.P. and Folger, R. (1997). Retaliation at work: the role of distributive, procedural and interactive justice.Journal of Applied Psychology,82, 434–443.

expectations theory

According to expectancy theory, individual motivation to try harder or harder is determined by a rational calculus in which individuals assess their situation.Porter, L.W. & Lawler, E.E. (1968).Management and performance settings. Homewood, Illinois: Irwin; Vroom, VH (1964).work and motivation. Nova York: Willey.According to this theory, individuals ask themselves three questions.

Figure 5.9Summary of Expectancy Theory

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Sources: Based on Porter, L.W. and Lawler, E.E. (1968).Management and performance settings. Homewood, Illinois: Irwin; Vroom, VH (1964).work and motivation. Nova York: Willey.

The first question is whether the person believes that a high level of effort leads to interesting results, such as achievement or success. This perception is markedexpectationIf the person believes that a high level of effort leads to interesting results, such as achievement or success.🇧🇷 For example, do you think the effort you put into a class is related to doing well in that class? If you do this, you'll be more likely to put in the effort.

The second question is the extent to which the person believes achievement is related to further outcomes such as rewards. This perception is markedmediationThe degree to which the individual believes achievement is related to secondary outcomes such as rewards.🇧🇷 For example, do you think getting good grades in class is related to rewards like a better job or approval from your teacher, friends, or parents? If you do this, you'll be more likely to put in the effort.

Finally, individuals are also concerned with the value of the rewards they expect from performance. The expected level of satisfaction that will result from an outcome is labeledvaleriaThe amount of rewards the person expects as a result of performance.🇧🇷 For example, do you value getting a better job or receiving approval from your teacher, friends, or parents? If these outcomes are desirable for you, your expectation and instrumentality are high and you are more likely to push yourself.

Expectancy theory is an accepted theory that has received a lot of research attention.Heneman, HG and Schwab, DP (1972). Evaluation of research on expectations in predicting employee performance.Psychological Bulletin,78, 1–9; Van Eerde, W. and Thierry, H. (1996). Vroom expectation models and job-related criteria: a meta-analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology,81, 575-586.It's simple and intuitive. Consider the following example. Let's say you work at a film concession. They sold an average of 100 combinations of popcorn and soda a day. Now your manager asks you to increase that number to 300 matches per day. Would you be motivated to try to increase your numbers? This is what you might be thinking:

  • expectation: Can I do it? If I put in the effort, can I really reach that number? Is there a connection between how hard I try and whether or not I achieve that goal? If you think you can reach that number if you try, you have high expectations.
  • mediation: What's in there for me? What happens when I reach 300? What results will follow? Will they give me a 2% raise? Will I be the seller of the month? Will I receive verbal praise from my manager? If you believe that good performance is related to specific outcomes, instrumentality is high.
  • valeria: How do I feel about the results in question? I think a 2% pay raise is desirable? Does being named Salesperson of the Month sound appealing to me? Does it seem desirable to be praised by my boss? If your answers are affirmative, the valence is positive. On the other hand, if you find the results undesirable (you definitely don't want to be named Salesperson of the Month because your friends would make fun of you), the score is negative.

If your answers to all three questions are positive (you think you can do this, you'll get a result if you do this, and you'll appreciate the reward), you'll probably be more motivated to try harder to get more combos down.

As a manager, how can you motivate employees? In fact, managers can influence all three perceptions.Cook, C.W. (1980). Guidelines for managing horizons,23, 61–69.

Influencing the perception of expectations

Employees may not believe their efforts will lead to superior performance for a variety of reasons. First, they may not have the skills, knowledge, or abilities to do their job successfully. The answer to this problem may be to train employees or hire qualified people for the roles in question. Second, low expectancy can occur because employees may feel that something other than effort predicts performance, such as: B. employee political behavior. If employees believe that the work environment is not conducive to performance (lack of resources or unclear roles), expectations are also affected. Thus, it helps to pave the way for achievement and create an environment where employees do not feel constrained. Finally, some employees may perceive little correlation between their effort and their level of achievement because they have an external locus of control, low self-esteem, or other personality traits that make them believe their efforts won't make a difference. In these cases, positive feedback and encouragement can help motivate employees.

(Video) Extrinsic vs Intrinsic Motivation

Influencing the perception of instrumentality

Showing employees that their performance will be rewarded will increase the perception of instrumentality. Therefore, the first step in influencing instrumentality is to link pay and other rewards to performance, using bonuses, reward schemes and pay-for-performance. However, this is not always enough, as people may not be aware of the rewards that entrepreneurs expect. You need to run contests or rewards programs to raise employee awareness of rewards. It is also important to emphasize that performance is rewarded and not something else. For example, if a company has an Employee of the Month award that rotates among employees, employees are unlikely to believe that performance is being rewarded. This kind of pointless reward system can actually get in the way of motivating top performers by undermining instrumentality.

affect the value

Employees are more likely to be motivated if they find the reward attractive. In the process, managers discover what their employees value. Desired rewards are often fair and meet the diverse needs of different employees. To secure high value, you need to get to know a company's employees. Talking to employees and asking what rewards they find valuable are some ways to gain understanding. Finally, it can be a good idea to give employees the option of multiple rewards to add value.

Figure 5.10Ways in which managers can influence expectancy, instrumentality, and valence

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reinforcement theory

Reinforcement theory is based on Ivan Pavlov's work on behavioral conditioning and B.F. Skinner's later work on operant conditioning.Skinner, BF (1953).science and human behavior. Nova York: Free Press.According to reinforcement theory, behavior is a function of its outcomes. Imagine you stayed up late and wrote a report, even though no one asked you to. When the manager found out, she was excited and invited him to lunch and sincerely thanked him. The consequences of your good deed were favorable, and therefore you are more likely to exhibit similar behaviors in the future. In other words, your initiative has been strengthened. If your manager didn't say anything about it and everyone ignored the sacrifice you made, you're less likely to experience similar behavior in the future.

Reinforcement theory is based on a simple idea that can be considered common sense. From childhood we learn through reinforcement. If you've watched a child discover his environment, you'll see reinforcement theory in action. If the child discovers that when you turn on a faucet, water comes out and the result is pleasant for him, he is more likely to repeat the behavior. If you burn your hand playing with hot water, the child is likely to stay away from the faucet in the future.

Despite the simplicity of reinforcement, how many times have you found positive behavior ignored or, even worse, negative behavior rewarded? In many organizations, this is a familiar scenario. People go above and beyond the call of duty, but their actions are either ignored or criticized. People with disruptive habits may not be penalized because the manager is afraid of the person's reaction to them. Troublesome employees can even be given rewards such as promotions so they can be reassigned elsewhere and become someone else's problem. Also, it is common for people to be rewarded for bad behavior. Steven Kerr called this phenomenon "the madness of rewarding A while waiting for B."Kerr, S. (1995). On the stupidity of rewarding A while waiting for B.Management Academy Manager,9, 7–14.For example, a company might make public statements about the importance of quality. However, if they choose to reward on-time shipments, regardless of how many defects they contain, employees are more likely to ignore quality and focus on speeding up the delivery process. As people learn to replicate their behavior based on the consequences of their past activities, managers must systematically examine the consequences of employee behavior and intervene when necessary.

reinforcement interventions

Reinforcement theory describes four interventions to change employee behavior. Two of them are methods of increasing the frequency of desirable behaviors, while the remaining two are methods of decreasing the frequency of undesirable behaviors.

Figure 5.11reinforcement methods

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positive reinforcementMake sure the behavior has positive is a method of increasing the desired behavior.Beatty, RW and Schneier, CE (1975). A case of positive horizons,18, 57–66.Positive reinforcement is ensuring that the behavior has positive consequences. For example, praising an employee for treating a customer with respect is an example of positive reinforcement. When praise immediately follows positive behavior, the employee sees a connection between the behavior and positive consequences and is motivated to repeat similar behavior.

negative reinforcementDelete unpleasant results when the desired behavior is displayed.It is also used to reinforce desired behavior. Negative reinforcement involves removing unpleasant outcomes once the desired behavior is displayed. Reprimanding an employee for finishing a report is an example of negative reinforcement. The negative environmental stimulus persists until a positive behavior is displayed. The problem with negative reinforcement is that the negative stimulus can lead to unexpected behavior and may not encourage the desired behavior. For example, the person might start avoiding the boss to avoid getting angry.

To dieRemoval of rewards after negative reduce the frequency of negative behaviors. Extinction is the removal of rewards after negative behavior. Negative behaviors are sometimes exhibited because they are inadvertently rewarded. For example, it has been shown that people who are rewarded for unethical behavior tend to exhibit higher levels of unethical behavior.Harvey, HW and Sims, HP (1978). Some determinants of unethical behavior in decision-making: an experiment.Journal of Applied Psychology,63, 451–457.Therefore, removing rewards after undesirable behavior can reduce the frequency of future negative behavior. For example, if a co-worker forwards unsolicited email messages that contain jokes, commenting and laughing at the jokes might encourage the person to forward those messages. Completely ignoring these messages can reduce their frequency.

punishmentShowing negative consequences after undesirable another method to reduce the frequency of unwanted behaviors. Punishment involves showing negative consequences after undesirable behavior. Reprimanding an employee for constantly being late for work is an example of punishment.

reinforcement plans

In addition to types of reinforcement, researchers have also turned their attention to schedules of reinforcement.Beatty, RW and Schneier, CE (1975). A case of positive horizons,18, 57–66.Profit is shown in acontinuous calendarWhen reinforcers follow all instances of positive behavior.when reinforcers follow all instances of positive behavior. An example of a rolling schedule would be giving an employee a sales commission every time he makes a sale. In many cases rolling schedules are not practical. For example, it would be difficult to congratulate an employee every time he arrives at work on time.fixed ratio schedulesReward the behavior after a certain number of occurrences.include providing rewards to allnortetime the correct behavior is displayed. An example of this would be giving the associate a bonus for every tenth sale they make.variable ratioProvide reinforcement in a random pattern.involves providing reinforcement according to a random pattern, e.g. B. Occasionally praise the employee when he is punctual. With continuous schedules, the change in behavior tends to be temporary. Once the reward is withdrawn, the person may stop performing the desired behavior. Longer-lasting results occur with varying proportions, but there is also evidence that continuous schedules work better than variable schedules.Beatty, RW and Schneier, CE (1975). A case of positive horizons,18, 57–66; Cherrington, D.J. & Cherrington, J.O. (1974). Participation, Performance and horizons,17, 35–44; Saari, LM and Latham, GP (1982). Employee responses to continuous and variable rate boost plans that include a monetary incentive.Journal of Applied Psychology,67, 506-508; Yukl, GA and Latham, GP (1975). Consequences of reinforcement programs and incentive sizes on employee performance: problems encountered in an industrial setting.Journal of Applied Psychology,60, 294–298.

OB Toolbox: Be Effective in Applying Your Discipline

As a manager, sometimes you need to discipline an employee to eliminate undesirable behavior. Here are some tips to make this process more effective.

  • Consider whether punishment is the most effective way to change behavior.🇧🇷 Sometimes it's better to catch people doing good things and praise or reward them than to punish bad behavior. Instead of criticizing them for being late, praise them for being on time. Carrots can be more effective than chopsticks. You can also eliminate the behavior by removing the rewards that follow the unwanted behavior.
  • Make sure the punishment matches the crime.🇧🇷 If a punishment is too harsh, both the employee in question and colleagues who learn of the punishment will consider it unfair. Unfair punishment should not change undesirable behavior.
  • Be constant in dealing with employees.🇧🇷 Establish disciplinary procedures and apply them to all equally. It is unfair to impose a rule on a certain employee and then give a free pass to others.
  • Document the behavior in question.🇧🇷 If an employee is to be disciplined, the evidence must go beyond hearsay.
  • be punctual and disciplined🇧🇷 When there is a long gap between the behavior and the punishment, reducing the unwanted behavior is less effective because the connection between the behavior and the punishment is weaker.

Sources: Adapted from ideas in Ambrose, M.L., & Kulik, C.T. (1999). Old friends, new faces: research on motivation in the diary,25, 231-292; Guffey, CJ & Helms, MM (2001). Effective Employee Discipline: A Case from the Internal Revenue Service.Public HR Management,30, 111–128.

One systematic way in which the principles of reinforcement theory are applied is called Organizational Behavior Modification (orMod. obstetricA systematic application of reinforcement theory to change employee behavior in the workplace.).Luthans, F. and Stajkovic, A.D. (1999). Achievement Reinforcement: The need to go beyond pay and even rewards.Management Academy Manager,13, 49–57.This is a systematic application of reinforcement theory to change employee behavior in the workplace. The model consists of five steps. The process begins with identifying the behavior to be changed. Let's say we are interested in reducing employee absenteeism. In step 2, we need to measure the baseline level of absenteeism. How many times a month is a certain employee absent? In step 3, the antecedents and consequences of the behavior are determined. Why is this employee missing? More importantly, what happens when the employee is away? If the behavior is involuntarily rewarded (e.g., the person still gets paid or manages to avoid unpleasant tasks because someone else is doing them), we might expect these positive consequences to increase absenteeism. Instead, to reduce absenteeism rates, you need to think about economic or social incentives for engaging in positive behaviors and the negative consequences of engaging in negative behaviors. In step 4 an intervention is carried out. Removing the positive consequences of negative behavior can be an effective way of dealing with the situation, or punishment can be used in persistent situations. Finally, in step 5, behavior is regularly measured and maintained.

Studies examining the effectiveness of the OB Mod generally support the model. A literature review found that mod OB interventions resulted in a 17% increase in performance.Stajkovic, AD and Luthans, F. (1997). A meta-analysis of the effects of organizational behavior change on task performance, 1975-1995.Management Academy Magazine,40, 1122–1149.Especially in manufacturing environments, the OB Mod has been an effective means of increasing performance, although positive effects have also been seen in service organizations.

Figure 5.12Stages of organizational behavior change

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Source: Based on information from Stajkovic, A.D., & Luthans, F. (1997). A meta-analysis of the effects of organizational behavior change on task performance, 1975-1995.Management Academy Magazine,40, 1122–1149.

key to charge

Process-based theories use employees' thought processes as the key to understanding employee motivation. According to equity theory, employees become demotivated when they perceive that the distribution of rewards is unfair. Perceptions of fairness are shaped by the comparisons they make between their inputs and outputs against a speaker's inputs and outputs. Borrowing from justice theory, the research identified two other types of justice (procedural and interactional) that also affect worker responses and motivations. According to expectancy theory, employees are motivated when they believe that their effort will lead to high performance (expectancy), when they believe that their performance will lead to results (instrumentality), and when they consider post-performance outcomes to be desirable (valence). ). 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 Reinforcement theory holds that behavior is a function of its consequences. By correctly pairing rewards with positive behaviors, removing rewards after negative behaviors, and punishing negative behaviors, leaders can increase the frequency of desired behaviors. These three theories are particularly useful when designing reward systems within an organization.


  1. Your manager tells you that the best way to ensure fairness in the distribution of rewards is to keep the pay secret. How would you react to that statement?
  2. When handing out bonuses or salaries, how would you ensure you were paid fairly?
  3. What are the differences between procedural, interactive, and distributive justice? List ways you could improve each of these perceptions of fairness.
  4. Explain the terms expectancy, instrumentality, and valence using examples.
  5. Some practitioners and researchers consider the OB Mod unethical as it can be seen as a method of manipulation. How would you react to such criticism?

5.4The role of ethics and national culture

learning goals

  1. Consider the role of motivation in ethical behavior.
  2. Consider the role of national culture in motivational theories.
(Video) Motivation - Maslow Theory & ERG Theory

motivation and ethics

What motivates people to behave unethically? Motivation theories were applied to explain this interesting and important question. One theory that has been particularly successful in explaining ethical behavior is reinforcement theory. Ethical behavior, like any other behavior such as performance or cooperation, is one that is learned as a result of the consequences of one's actions. For example, in an experiment simulating the work of a sales manager, participants made a series of decisions using a computer. During the simulation, subjects were told that their subordinate salespeople bribed customers. Subjects in this experiment were more likely to reduce bribery when the manager was threatened with punishment. On the other hand, individuals who played sales managers were more likely to continue delivering the bribes if they made a profit after providing the bribes.Hegarty, WH and Sims, HP (1978). Some determinants of unethical behavior in decision-making: an experiment.Journal of Applied Psychology,63, 451–457.In a separate study that highlighted the importance of rewards and punishments, researchers found that expected punishment severity was the main predictor of whether subjects reported a propensity for unethical behavior. In addition to the severity of punishment, the perceived likelihood of punishment was also a key factor influencing ethical behavior.Rettig, S. and Rawson, HE (1963). The risk hypothesis in predictive judgments about unethical behavior.Journal of Social and Abnormal Psychology,66, 243–248.These results underscore the importance of rewards and punishments in motivating unethical behavior.

There are many organizational situations where people do unethical things but then experience positive consequences, such as: B. Promotions to meet sales quotas. For example, in many hotels, employees routinely receive kickbacks from restaurants or bars for referring customers there.Elliott, C. (2007). Is your charger in the way?viajante da National Geographic,24(3), 18–20.Likewise, salespeople who are rewarded with bonuses (sales incentives for specific products) may give advice to customers that contradicts their own personal beliefs and act unethically about it.Radin, TJ and Predmore, CE (2002). Salesperson Myth: Intended and Unintended Consequences of Sales Incentives for Specific ethics magazine,36, 79–92.As long as the unethical behavior has positive consequences for that person, we expect the unethical behavior to continue. Therefore, to minimize the occurrence of unethical behavior (and in some cases legal problems), it seems important to examine the rewards and punishments that follow unethical behavior and to eliminate rewards after unethical behavior, while increasing the severity and likelihood. of punishments arising.

motivation around the world

Motivation is a matter of culture. In other words, the factors that motivate employees in different cultures may not have the same value. The theories of motivation we discuss in this chapter are likely to be culturally linked because they were developed by Western researchers, and most of the research supporting each theory has been conducted on Western subjects.

Depending on the cultural context, it may be necessary to modify Maslow's hierarchy of needs, as the hierarchy of needs can differ from culture to culture. For example, a study conducted in 39 countries showed that financial satisfaction is a stronger predictor of overall life satisfaction in developing countries compared to developed countries. In industrialized countries, satisfaction of esteem needs was a stronger motivator than in developing countries.Oishi, S., Diener, EF, & Suh, EM (1999). Cross-cultural differences in predictors of life satisfaction: needs and values ​​perspectives.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,25, 980–990.

People all over the world value fairness and equity. However, what is perceived as fair can be culturally determined. Furthermore, people from different cultures may respond differently to perceived injustice.Erdogan B and Liden RC (2006). Collectivism as a moderator of organizational justice responses: implications for leader and member sharing and complacency.Organizational Behavior Diary,27, 1–17; Mueller, C.W. & Wynn, T. (2000). The degree to which fairness is valued in the justice research,13, 1–24.For example, cross-cultural studies have found that participants in low power distance cultures such as the United States and Germany value having a say in the process (the opportunities to explain and challenge a decision) more than participants in high power distance cultures. power distance. I can. such as China and Mexico. At the same time, the Chinese value interactional justice more.Brockner J, Ackerman G, Greenberg J, Gelfand MJ, Francesco AM, Chen ZX, et al. (2001). Culture and procedural justice: the impact of power distance on voting responses.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,37, 300–315; Tatá, J (2005). The influence of national culture on the perception of fairness of assessment procedures: a comparison between the United States and China.psychology magazine,139, 401–412.There is also evidence that equity – rewarding employees based on their contributions to a group – can be a culture-specific method of achieving equity. One study shows that the Japanese viewed equity as less fair and distributions based on equality as fairer than Australians.Kashima, Y., Siegal, M., Tanaka, K. & Isaka, H. (1988). Universalism in secular concepts of distributive justice: a cross-cultural study.International Journal of Psychology,23, 51–64.Likewise, subjects in different cultures varied in their propensity to distribute rewards based on subjects' needs or age, and in cultures such as Japan and India, a person's need can be a relevant factor in distributing rewards.Kashima, Y., Siegal, M., Tanaka, K. & Isaka, H. (1988). Universalism in secular concepts of distributive justice: a cross-cultural study.International Journal of Psychology,23, 51–64; Murphy-Berman, V., Berman, J., Singh, P., Pachauri, A. & Kumar, P. (1984). Factors Influencing Allocation to Needy and Deserving Recipients: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,46, 1267–1272.

key to charge

Motivation theories are particularly useful for understanding why employees behave unethically. Based on reinforcement theory, people exhibit higher levels of unethical behavior when their unethical behavior is followed by rewards or goes unpunished. According to expectancy theory, people are more likely to engage in unethical behavior when they believe that their unethical actions will be rewarded with desirable outcomes. In terms of culture, it is likely that some of the theories of motivation are linked to culture, while others are more applicable to other cultures. Existing research shows that what is considered fair or unfair tends to be culturally defined.


  1. What is the relationship between a company's compensation system and the level of ethical behavior?
  2. Which of the theories of motivation do you think would be most applicable to many different cultures?

5.5Motivation in Action: The Case of Trader Joe

People in Hawaiian shirts. Tasty fresh fruits and vegetables. A place where parking is tight and the aisles are tiny. A place where you don't find half the things on your list, but go home satisfied. We're talking, of course, about Trader Joe's (a privately held company), a unique California-based grocery store with offices in 22 states. This chain has carved out a niche for itself by selling gourmet and private-label foods at affordable prices. But the helpful staff who stock the shelves and answer questions are definitely key to what makes this store unique and help it generate twice the sales of traditional supermarkets.

Shopping here is fun and talking to the employees is part of the routine. Employees are upbeat and friendly to each other and customers. If you seem lost, there is the best offer of help. But somehow kindness doesn't work. If they see you buying big platters of cheese, they might casually ask if you're having a party and point out other options. When they see you chasing their little boy, they quickly tie a balloon to your wrist. If you ask if they have cumin they will kneel down to check down the hall with the attitude of helping a guest visiting their home. How does a company ensure that its employees seem to love being there to help others?

One of the keys to this puzzle is payment. Trader Joe's sells cheap organic groceries, but they aren't "cheap" when it comes to paying their employees. Employees, including part-time employees, are among the highest paid in retail. Full-time employees earn an average of $40,150 in their first year and also earn an average annual bonus of $950 with $6,300 in pension contributions. The average store manager compensation is $132,000. With these generous benefits and above-average wages and salaries, the company has no trouble attracting qualified candidates.

But money only partially explains what motivates the Trader Joe team. You work with friendly, upbeat people. The environment is collaborative, with employees filling in for each other and managers filling in the gaps as needed, including tasks like sweeping the floor. Additionally, the company conducts promotions entirely in-house, making Trader Joe's one of the few places in the retail industry where employees can pursue their career aspirations. Employees are evaluated every 3 months and receive feedback on their performance.

Employees also have autonomy at work. They can open a product for customers to try, and they can be honest about their feelings on different products. They receive on-the-job and off-the-job training and are very familiar with the products, allowing them to develop ideas that senior management takes seriously. In short, employees love what they do, work with nice people who get along well and are respected by the company. When employees are treated well, it's no wonder they treat their customers well every day.

case written by[Quote edited at editor's request]🇧🇷 Based on information from Lewis, L. (2005).The Adventures of Trader Joe🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 Chicago: Dearborn-Handel; McGregor, J., Salter, C., Conley, L., Haley, F., Sacks, D., and Prospero, M. (2004). The customer company, 87, 79–88; Speiser, I. (2004). Buyer-Specialty.human resource management, 83, 51–55.

discussion questions

  1. How much of Trader Joe's success can be attributed to the fact that most major supermarket chains don't carry the kind of groceries that are available at Trader Joe's?
  2. Is the salary enough of an incentive to stay in a job you don't like?
  3. Trader Joe's only advertises within the organization. This means that if you are a good and committed employee, you can progress within the company. Do you think employees would be as committed to the company if they weren't? Would a high salary be enough to keep employees? What if the company was only promoted internally, but the pay wasn't that great?


In this chapter, we consider the basic motivational theories that have been developed to explain motivated behavior. Several theories view motivated behavior as attempts to satisfy needs. Based on this approach, managers would benefit from understanding what people need for employee actions to be understood and controlled. Other theories explain motivated behavior in terms of employees' cognitive processes. Employees respond to injustices in their environment, learn from the consequences of their actions and repeat behaviors that produce positive results, and are motivated to strive when they see their actions produce results that give them the rewards they desire. None of these theories is complete on its own, but each theory provides us with a framework we can use to analyze, interpret, and manage employee behavior in the workplace.


ethical dilemma

Companies are interested in motivating employees: work hard, be productive, be ethical and stay healthy. Health care costs are rising and employers are realizing that unhealthy habits like smoking or being overweight are costing companies a lot of money.

Concerned about rising healthcare costs, your company decides to encourage healthy habits among employees. Therefore, employees have one year to resign. If they don't quit by then, they'll lose their jobs. New employees are tested for nicotine and the company will no longer hire new smokers. The company also wants to encourage employees to stay healthy. For this, employees receive cash incentives for weight loss. If they do not meet company-issued weight, cholesterol, and blood pressure standards, additional health insurance fees will be charged.

Is this plan ethical? Why or why not? Can you think of alternative ways to motivate employees to adopt healthy habits?

individual exercise

Your company offers diversity training programs to ensure employees recognize the importance of working with a diverse workforce, are aware of equal opportunity laws, and can address the challenges of working in a multicultural workforce. Participation in these programs is mandatory and employees must complete the training as many times as necessary to pass. The training program lasts for one day and is usually held in a nice hotel away from work. Employees are paid for the time they spend in the training program. They discover that employees in this program are not really motivated to perform well. The training involves minimal effort and most participants fail the final exam and must repeat the training.

Using expectancy and reinforcement theories, explain why they might not be motivated to perform well in the training program. Then suggest improvements to the program so employees are motivated to understand the material, pass the exam, and apply the material in the workplace.

group task

A decision on awarding rewards.

You are responsible for awarding a $12,000 bonus to a team that recently met an important deadline. The team was responsible for developing a web-based product for a client. The project lasted a year. There were five people on the team. Your job is to determine each person's share of the bonus.

Manga:project manager🇧🇷 He was instrumental in winning over the client, coordinating everyone's efforts and managing the client relationship. He put a lot of overtime into this project. His annual salary is $80,000. He is independently wealthy, drives an expensive car and has no debt. He has been with the company for 5 years and has worked on the project from the beginning.

Alice:Technical Management🇧🇷 He oversaw the technical aspects of the project. It solved many important technical problems. Although some members worked overtime during the project, she refused to stay in the office outside of normal business hours. However, she was productive during normal business hours and available via email in the evenings. His salary is $50,000. She is a single mother and has a lot of debt. He has been working for the company for 4 years and 8 months for the project.

Ireland:graphic designer🇧🇷 He was responsible for the creative aspects of the project. He tried on many looks, slowing down the whole team. Brice and Carrie were mad at her for the many mistakes she made during the project, but the client ended up liking the look of the project, leading to new business. His salary is $30,000. She is single and lives to party. He has been with the company for 2 years and has worked on this project since the beginning.

Brice:Testator🇧🇷 He was responsible for finding bugs in the project and making sure it worked. He found a lot of bugs, but he wasn't very aggressive in his testing. He got a lot of things wrong, and many of the bugs he found weren't really bugs at all, but his abuse of the system. He was opposed to the whole project, was very pessimistic about its chances of success, and demoralized the team. His salary is $40,000. You have accumulated a large amount of credit card debt. He has worked for the company for 3 years and has worked for the project for 6 months.

Carrie:Web developer🇧🇷 She was responsible for writing the code. She was frustrated when Erin delayed the entire project due to her experiments. Carrie was primarily responsible for meeting the project deadline, putting in a lot of overtime work. Her salary is $50,000. Her mother has ongoing health issues and Carrie needs money to help her. She worked for the company last year and was involved in this project for 6 months.

(Video) Motivation Theory - Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs


What is the theory of motivation? ›

Motivation theory is the study of understanding what drives a person to work towards a particular goal or outcome. It's relevant to all of society but is especially important to business and management. That's because a motivated employee is more productive, and a more productive employee is more profitable.

What is motivation very short answer? ›

Motivation is derived from the word 'motive', which denotes a person's needs, desires, wants, or urges. It is the process of motivating individuals to take action in order to achieve a goal. The psychological elements fueling people's behavior in the context of job goals might include a desire for money.

What are the 4 theories of motivation explain? ›

There are four major theories in the need-based category: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, ERG theory, Herzberg's dual factor theory, and McClelland's acquired needs theory.

What are the 3 theory of motivation? ›

So what are the main theories of work motivation? We've selected three high-profile theories that offer an interesting take on what motivates different individuals: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, McClelland's Three Needs Theory, and Herzberg's Motivation Theory.

What is the best theory of motivation? ›

Maslow's hierarchy of needs. One of the most well-known motivation theories, the hierarchy of needs was published by psychologist Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation.” The gist is that Maslow's hierarchy outlines five tiers of human needs, commonly represented by a pyramid.

What are the 4 types of motivation? ›

These forms of motivation are just as important as intrinsic ones if you can leverage them.
  • Incentive motivation. Incentive motivation is all about external rewards. ...
  • Fear motivation. Here you're motivated by the fear of an undesirable outcome. ...
  • Power motivation. ...
  • Social motivation.
17 May 2022

Why is motivation important? ›

Motivation is important because it: provides you with goals to work towards. helps you solve problems. helps you change old habits.

What is the purpose of motivation? ›

Motivation reflects something unique about each one of us and allows us to gain valued outcomes like improved performance, enhanced wellbeing, personal growth, or a sense of purpose. Motivation is a pathway to change our way of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

What are types of motivation? ›

Motivations are primarily separated into two categories: extrinsic and intrinsic.

What are the 5 motivations? ›

Through research with thousands of employees and leaders, we've discovered that there are five major motivations that drive people's actions at work; Achievement, Power, Affiliation, Security and Adventure.

What are the 7 types of motivation? ›

Best types of motivation for different activities
  • Reward-based motivation.
  • Attitude motivation.
  • Fear-based motivation.
  • Creative motivation.
  • Achievement motivation.
  • Competence motivation.
  • Power motivation.
17 May 2021

What is motivation theories and examples? ›

According to the drive theory of motivation, people are motivated to take certain actions in order to reduce the internal tension that is caused by unmet needs. For example, you might be motivated to drink a glass of water in order to reduce the internal state of thirst.

What are the two main theories of motivation? ›

Some of the most important theories of motivation are as follows: 1. Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory 2. Herzberg's Motivation Hygiene Theory 3. McClelland's Need Theory 4.

What are the 6 types of motivation? ›

Pretty much all of the motivating factors out there can be distilled into six core types: incentive, achievement, social acceptance, fear, power, and growth.

Which motivation theory is best for students? ›

Self-efficacy Theory

Self-efficacy is one of the strongest factors that drive one's motivation. When students believe that they are competent to successfully accomplish a task, they are more motivated to engage in and complete the task.

Why is Maslow's theory the best? ›

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a go-to model that explains the psychology of human motivation. It will help you spend less time guessing what makes your people tick so that you can spend more time doing the things that motivate them.

What is the best theory of all time? ›

The Standard Model of particle physics is the most successful scientific theory of all time. In this explainer, Cambridge University physicist David Tong recreates the model, piece by piece, to provide some intuition for how the fundamental building blocks of our universe fit together.

What is motivation in real life? ›

The essence of motivation is energized and persistent goal-directed behavior. When we are motivated, we move and take action. Motivation is influenced by the satisfaction of needs that are either necessary for sustaining life or essential for wellbeing and growth.

How to improve motivation? ›

They break down and simplify the sometimes ambiguous task of motivating yourself, and will get you on the path to success.
  1. Set small, measurable goals. ...
  2. Develop a mantra. ...
  3. Commit publicly. ...
  4. Create your own routine and rituals. ...
  5. Become a good mental debater. ...
  6. See your goals. ...
  7. Face your fears.
6 Nov 2013

Why is motivation the key to success? ›

Surrounding yourself around positive, motivating people will push you to do better and work towards reaching your goal. Seeing other people who are self-motivating will also teach you how to motivate yourself and fuel that desire to attain your goals. Positivity can go a long way in helping you stay motivated.

How important is motivation in learning? ›

Motivation is not only important in its own right; it is also an important predictor of learning and achievement. Students who are more motivated to learn persist longer, produce higher quality effort, learn more deeply, and perform better in classes and on standardized tests.

What is motivation process? ›

In the motivational process model, motivation is defined as a series of dynamic processes including generation, maintenance, and regulation of motivation of which primary functions are approach toward reward, learning through RPE, decision-making based on value, and cognitive control for goal pursuit.

Which type of motivation is most important? ›

In summary
  • Intrinsic motivation is generally more effective than extrinsic motivation. ...
  • "Carrot" (reward) can be an effective form of motivation for repetitive tasks, and certain teams. ...
  • "Stick" (punishment) is far less effective at motivating teams than "carrot" and intrinsic motivation.
14 Oct 2019

What is the characteristics of motivation? ›

Motivation is a process of inspiring, energizing, reducing and activating the employees to a higher level of performance. This process starts with unsatisfied needs, moves through tension, drives and goal achievement, finally, it ends with the reduction of tension aroused by unsatisfied needs.

What is a good example of motivation? ›

Playing sports because you enjoy them. Improving your diet and fitness to feel healthier. Helping someone with no expectation of reward. Donating to a charity or cause you believe in.

What are the 6 C's of motivation? ›

Through this example, we are brought to learn about what they call the Six C's of motivation: choice, challenge, control, collaboration, constructing meaning, and consequences.

What are the 10 principles of motivation? ›

Ten Principles of Motivation
  • All people are motivated. ...
  • People do things for their own reasons; not for yours or mine. ...
  • People change because of pain. ...
  • The key to effective communication is identification. ...
  • The best way to get people to pay attention to you is to pay attention to them. ...
  • Pride is a powerful motivator.

What are the 10 factors of motivation? ›

The following are several factors to consider to keep both you and your team motivated:
  • Leadership style. ...
  • Recognition and appreciation. ...
  • Meaning and purpose. ...
  • Positive company culture. ...
  • Professional development opportunities. ...
  • Job advancement opportunities. ...
  • Financial benefits. ...
  • Flexible work schedules.
13 Jan 2021

How many theory are there in motivation? ›

Four theories may be placed under this category: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, ERG theory, Herzberg's two-factor theory, and McClelland's acquired-needs theory.

What is Maslow's theory of motivation explain it? ›

Maslow's theory is based on the following assumptions. (i) People's need influences their behaviour. (ii) Needs of the individuals can be arranged in a hierarchical order. (iii) An individual can move to a higher level need only when the lower level need in the hierarchy is satisfied.

What does Maslow's theory of motivation say? ›

Maslow's idea that people are motivated by satisfying lower-level needs such as food, water, shelter, and security, before they can move on to being motivated by higher-level needs such as self-actualization, is the most well-known motivation theory in the world.

What is Maslow's theory of motivation? ›

Maslow proposed that motivation is the result of a person's attempt at fulfilling five basic needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization. According to Maslow, these needs can create internal pressures that can influence a person's behavior.

What is the importance of motivation? ›

Motivation reflects something unique about each one of us and allows us to gain valued outcomes like improved performance, enhanced wellbeing, personal growth, or a sense of purpose. Motivation is a pathway to change our way of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

What is an example of Maslow's theory? ›

Examples include air, food, water, shelter, clothing, warmth, sex and sleep. Safety needs – Examples include protection from elements, security, order, law and stability. Love and belongingness needs – These are the first of social needs, involving the desire for interpersonal relationships and being part of a group.

What are the types of motivation? ›

The 3 Types of Motivation
  • Extrinsic. Doing an activity to attain or avoid a separate outcome. Chances are, many of the things you do each day are extrinsically motivated. ...
  • Intrinsic. An internal drive for success or sense of purpose. ...
  • Family. Motivated by the desire to provide for your loved ones.
13 Jul 2017

Why is Maslow's motivation theory the best? ›

Why is Maslow's hierarchy of needs important? The basis of Maslow's theory is that we are motivated by our needs as human beings. Additionally, if some of our most important needs are unmet, we may be unable to progress and meet our other needs. This can help explain why we might feel "stuck" or unmotivated.

Is Maslows theory correct? ›

The needs described in Maslow's theory appear to be universal. However, research shows that the order in which these needs are met had little impact on people's satisfaction with life. "Our findings suggest that Maslow's theory is largely correct.

How can I use Maslow's theory to motivate employees? ›

Motivating People with Growth Needs
  1. Offer support to complete new tasks.
  2. Give staff and employees a challenge.
  3. Work should be made interesting.
  4. Encourage people to think for themselves.
  5. Keep people informed.
  6. Ask people what motivates them.
  7. Stretch people with new work.
  8. Offer training where possible.

What are the 5 stages in Maslow's theory? ›

Physiological (food and clothes), safety (job security), love and belonging needs (friendship), esteem, and self-actualization are the needs from the bottom of the hierarchy up. Dive Deeper into this topic, Read this doc from Canada College on Maslow's Hierarchy.

When was Maslow's motivation theory? ›

In 1943, the US psychologist Abraham Maslow published a paper called A Theory of Human Motivation, in which he said that people had five sets of needs, which come in a particular order. As each level of needs is satisfied, the desire to fulfil the next set kicks in.

Which of Maslow's needs is most important? ›

Maslow considered physiological needs the most important as all the other needs become secondary until these needs are met. 2. Safety needs - once an individual's physiological needs are satisfied, the needs for security and safety become salient.


1. Theories of motivation - Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor
2. Victor Vroom and Expectancy Theory: Process of Model of Motivation
(Management Courses - Mike Clayton)
3. Douglas McGregor - Theory X and Theory Y: Process of Model of Motivation
(Management Courses - Mike Clayton)
4. Ryan & Deci: Self Determination Theory (SDT) - Content Models of Motivation
(Management Courses - Mike Clayton)
5. Edwin Locke: Goal-Setting Theory of Motivation
(Management Courses - Mike Clayton)
6. Herzberg's Motivation Theory
(Bill Paxton)


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